There are three broad categories of end treatments: anchorages, terminals, and crash cushions.
Anchorages anchor a flexible or semi-rigid barrier to the ground to develop tensile strength during an impact. These are not considered crashworthy, and are appropriate for the trailing end of a barrier. Terminals are crashworthy anchorages. These anchor the end of a barrier to the ground. Terminals can typically absorb an impact from one direction.
Crash cushions are devices installed in front of a concrete barrier, or other rigid fixed object.